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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading.

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE  if the statement is true
FALSE  if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN  if the information is not given in the pass…

1. In his study of prehistoric life, Peter Falkinghom rarely spends time on outdoor research.
2. Several attempts are usually needed before the computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to stay upright.
3. When the Sellers and Manning computer model was used for people, it showed them moving faster than they are physically able to.
4. Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the movement of dinosaurs.
5. An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as those made by live animals.
6. Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has been found to be inaccurate.

Label the diagram below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 7-9 on your answer sheet.

7. Dinosaur’s name comes from spines. One theory: they were necessary to hold up a which helped control body heat.
8. Skull is compared with rest of body.
9.  made easier by wide tail and highly developes muscles in legs.

QUESTIONS 10 - 13:
Complete the flow-chart below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer:

10. Mud is simulated with attention to its texture and thickness and how much 10. it contains.
11. Levels of are measured within the footprint.
12. Multiple simulations relate footprints to different types of
13. More accurate interpretation of is possible.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading.

QUESTIONS 14 - 20:
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.

14. An insect that proves the superiority of natural intelligence over Artificial Intelligence.
15. Robots being able to benefit from their mistakes.
16. Many researchers not being put off believing that Artificial Intelligence will eventually be developed.
17. An innovative approach that is having limited success.
18. The possibility of creating Artificial Intelligence being doubted by some academics.
19. No generally accepted agreement of what our brains do.
20. Robots not being able to extend the intelligence in the same way as humans.

QUESTIONS 21 - 23:
Look at the following people (Questions 21-23) and the list of statements below. Match each person with the correct statement A-E. Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet.

21. __________ Colin McGinn
22. __________ Marvin Minsky
23. __________ Hans Moravec

QUESTIONS 24 - 26:
Complete the summary below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.


Despite some advances, the early robots had certain weaknesses. They were given the information they needed on a 24. __________ This was known as the ‘top-down’ approach and enabled them to do certain tasks but they were unable to recognise 25. __________ Nor did they have any intuition or ability to make decisions based on experience. Rodney Brooks tried a different approach. Robots similar to those invented by Brooks are to be found on 26. __________ where they are collecting information.

24. They were given the information they needed on a .
25. This was known as the ‘top-down’ approach and enabled them to do certain tasks but they were unable to recognise .
26. Robots similar to those invented by Brooks are to be found on  where they are collecting information.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading.
QUESTIONS 27 - 32:
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer In Reading Passage
3? In boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet, write:

YES  if the statement agrees with the views of…
NO  if the statement contradicts the views of …
NOT GIVEN  if it is impossible to say what the writer th…

27. By 2050 only a small number of languages will be flourishing.
28. Australian academics’ efforts to record existing Aboriginal languages have been too limited.
29. Tho use of technology In language research is proving unsatisfactory in some respects.
30. Chomsky’s political views have overshadowed his academic work.
31. Documentary linguistics studies require long-term financial support.
32. Chomsky’s attitude to disappearing languages is too emotional.

QUESTIONS 33 - 36:
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33.  The writer mentions rainforests and the ozone layer __________ :
34. What does Nick Evans say about speakers of a creole?
35. What is similar about West Africa and South America, from the linguist’s point of
36. Michael Krauss has frequently pointed out that __________:

QUESTIONS 37 - 40:
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G below. Write the correct letter A-G, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.

  A. even though it is in danger of disappearing.
  B. provided that it has a strong basis in theory.
  C. although it may share certain universal characteristics.
  D. because there is a practical advantage to it.
  E. so long as the drawbacks are clearly understood.
  F. in spite of the prevalence of theoretical linguistics.
  G. until they realize what is involved.

37. Linguists like Peter Austin believe that every language is unique.
38. Nick Evans suggests a community may resist attempts to save its language.
39. Many young researchers are interested in doing practical research.
40. Chomsky supports work in descriptive linguistics.

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